Iran is a county in southwest Asian, country of mountains and deserts. Eastern Iran is dominated by a high plateau, with large salt flats and vast sand deserts. The plateau is surrounded by even higher mountains, including the Zagros to the west and the Elburz to the north. Tehran is the capital, the country's largest city and the political, cultural, commercial and industrial center of the nation.
Iran's climate ranges from arid or semiarid, to subtropical along the Caspian coast and the northern forests. On the northern edge of the country (the Caspian coastal plain) temperatures rarely fall below freezing and the area remains humid for the rest of the year. Summer temperatures rarely exceed 29 °C (84.2 °F). Annual precipitation is 680 mm (26.8 in) in the eastern part of the plain and more than 1,700 mm (66.9 in) in the western part.
To the west, settlements in the Zagros basin experience lower temperatures, severe winters with below zero average daily temperatures and heavy snowfall. The eastern and central basins are arid, with less than 200 mm (7.9 in) of rain, and have occasional deserts. Average summer temperatures exceed 38 °C (100.4 °F). The coastal plains of the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman in southern Iran have mild winters, and very humid and hot summers. The annual precipitation ranges from 135 to 355 mm (5.3 to 14.0 in).
The Persian Empire, the Medes, the Assyrian Kingdom, the Macedonians, the Huns, the Sassanians, the Arabs, the Seljuks and Mongols, the Timurids and the Safavids,Ghajar and Pahlavi all held sway here at one time or another.
In the 6th century BC Cyrus the Great founded the Persian Empire, which was destroyed in 330 BC by Alexander the Great. In succeeding centuries, Persia was invaded by the Parthians, the Arabs, the Mongols and various Turkish dynasties.
After the Arab conquest in the middle of the 7th century, the ancient Persian religion of Zoroastrianism gave way to Islam.
Persia continued to be overrun by foreign powers for another thousand years. The Seljuk Turks arrived in the 11th century, followed by the Mongols under Genghis Khan and his grandson Hulagu Khan in the 13th century and Tamerlane (Timur) in the 14th century. Another Turkish dynasty, the Safavids, took control in the 16th century, only to be ousted by yet another Turkish tribe, the Qajar, in the 18th century.
The Safavids belonged to a Sufi religious order and made Shiite Islam the official religion of Iran, undertaking a major conversion campaign of Iranian Muslims.
In 18th-19th centuries Iran falls under the increasing pressure of European nations, particularly the Russian Empire and the Great Britain. The discovery of oil in early 1900s intensified the rivalry of the Great Britain and Russia for power over the nation. After the World War 1st Iran was admitted to the League of Nations as an original member.
In 1921 Reza Khan, an army officer, established a military dictatorship. He was subsequently elected hereditary Shah, thus ending the Qajar dynasty and founding the new Pahlavi dynasty.
In 1963 Iran's most important religious nation-wide uprising led by Ayatollah Khomeini, took place in protest to the so-called White Revolution.
After the victory of the Islamic Revolution of 1979 the shah was overthrown and Iran, officially renamed the Islamic Republic of Iran, became a theocratic state. The Constitution of 1979 designated Ayatollah Khomeini as the pious jurist or faqih (the policy guide and ultimate decision-maker). April 1, 1979 became the Islamic Republic Day.
Language and literature
Official language of Iran is Farsi or as it is called Persian, this is what we use in our media also and teaches in the schools. Persian serves as a lingua franca in Iran and most publications and broadcastings are in this language.
There are also many other languages around Iran and also there are many publications and media broadcasting in these languages. The Azari and Kurdish are mostly used languages alongside Persian but still not very viral and different. There is other communities like Arab and Armenians who speak their own language too but quantity is not very large. The oldest records in Old Persian date to the Achaemenid Empire, and examples of Old Persian has been found in present-day Iran, Iraq, Turkey and Egypt.
In the late 8th century, Persian was highly Arabized and written in a modified Arabic script. This caused a movement supporting the revival of Persian. An important event of this revival was the writing of the Shahname by Ferdowsi (Persian: Epic of Kings), Iran's national epic, which is said to have been written entirely in native Persian. This gave rise to a strong reassertion of Iranian national identity, and is in part credited for the continued existence of Persian as a separate language.
Iran has high recreational and eco tourism potentials with the natural environment as huge as 2.800kilometer of coast line and water borders and high mountains of Alborz and Zagross. There is the largest lake of the world Caspian Sea in northern regions of Iran and also Persian Gulf in south and environment of each is way much different. Also Oman Sea has borders even larger than other countries.
The islands of the Persian Gulf, Kish, Qeshm, and Hormoz with suitable shores and beaches as well as pleasant sunshine may be used for vacations even in winters. There are daily and regular flights to this region from several parts of the country as well as suitable accommodation facilities. Moreover, these islands are easily accessible through waterways by different types of ships and boats as well as by airplane.
The mountains and mountain slopes in Iran, along with economic value for nomads for grazing of their sheep, serves as summer residence of urban dwellers as well as suitable places for winter and mountain sports.
There are a number of Natural Parks & Protected Region such as, Golestan, Kavir,Lar, Khosh Yellagh, Bakhtegan and Bamoo in Iran. Bakhtegan Lake is a place that must be seen by tourists especially in winter when the migrated flamingoes and birds from Russia accommodate themselves in here.
A visit to Margoon Waterfall, Anzali Lagoon (West Caspian coast) Miankaleh Lagoon (East Caspian coast), Qeshm island Mangrove forest in Persian Gulf will fulfill your tour of Iran.
Eco tourism in Iran divided into different categories like enjoying wildlife, photography from nature, camping, mountain climbing, hiking, desert trekking, camel ridding in heart of Iranian deserts, walking in forest, observing stars and some other fields.
It is trying to recognize and become familiar with the arts of other nations Iranians have had many inventions and valuable artifacts since thousands years ago in some arts like pottery, miniatures, carpet, etc. Unfortunately, most of them have been remained and of the main attractions for tourists.
Ethnic diversity of Iran
The second major element of the population after Persians is composed of various Turkic-speaking groups. Turkic speakers make up as much as 24 percent of Iran’s total population. By far the largest Turkic-speaking groups are the Azerbaijanis’, who account for over 85 percent of all Turkic speakers in Iran. Most of the Azerbaijanis are concentrated in the northwestern corner of the country. Other Turkish groups are Qashqais, A nomadic Qashqai family moving to new grazing ground.
The Kurds speak a variety of closely related dialects, which in Iran are collectively called Kirmanji. There are approximately 6 million Kurds in Iran. They are the third most important ethnic group in the country after the Persians and Azerbaijanis’ and account for about 9 percent of the total population.
The Kurdish area of Iran includes most of West Azerbaijan, all of Kurdistan, Kermanshah and Ilam.
In the central and southern Zagros live the Bakhtiaris and the Lurs, two groups that speak Luri, a language closely related to Persian. The Lurs live in the Zagros to the northwest, west, and southeast of the Bakhtiaris.
The Baluchis — who constitute the majority of the population in Baluchistan VA Sis tan — numbered approximately 2% of population in Iran. They are part of a larger group that forms the majority of the population of Baluchistan Province in Pakistan and of some areas in southern Afghanistan.
Semitic Language Groups
Arabic and Assyrian are the two Semitic languages spoken in Iran. The Arabic dialects are spoken in Khuzestan and along the Persian Gulf coast. In 2006 there werę an estimated 3% Arabs in Iran. A majority lived in Khuzestan, where they constituted a significant ethnic minority. The other Semitic people of Iran are the Assyrians, a Christian group that speaks modern dialects of Assyrian, an Aramaic language that evolved from old Syriac.
Armenians, a non-Muslim minority that traditionally has lived in northwestern Iran adjacent to the historic Armenian homeland located in what today are eastern Turkey and Soviet Armenia, speak an Indo- European language that is distantly related to Persian. There has been considerable emigration of Armenians from Iran since, although in 2006 the Armenian population was estimated to be about 300,000 Population.
Scattered throughout central, southern, and eastern Iran are small groups speaking many different Indo-Iranian languages. In the southern part of the Central Plateau are such small nomadic and semi nomadic tribes. Other tribes, related to groups in neighboring Afghanistan and the Soviet Union, are found in Khorasan. Also in Khorasan are an estimated 25,000 Tajiks. Distinguishable, but comparatively smaller, Indo-Iranian-speaking minorities are the following tribally organized settled groups: the Hazareh, Barbai, Teimuri, Jamshidi, and Afghani in Khorasan; the Qadikolahi and Pahlavi in Mazandaran; and the Sassanid and Agajani in the Talesh region of Gilan.